The Making Of A Disease

The Making Of A Disease

While it has long been known that exposure to asbestos has been found to be a causative factor in mesothelioma , it is less understood exactly how the exposure will later morph into the disease itself. Recently, there has been much study into the effects of asbestos on the genetic makeup of the tissues it affects in the hopes that identifying these changes can assist in early diagnosis and a better life expectancy in association with mesothelioma.

Exposure to asbestos has been linked with what scientists know as genetic deletions, in which a gene, in this case the 9p21 gene, is deleted and the benefits of the specific gene are lost. Since 9p21 is a prominent base for a tumor suppressor gene, that, when activated, will assist the body in fighting off a specific cancer, when it is absent or deactivated, the result is an unregulated growth of the specified cancer which, in this case, is Mesothelioma, a rare and highly malignant form off the disease.

Mesothelioma is named for the epithelial lining that it affects, the mesothelium, which surrounds and protects many organs throughout the body, though the initial sites of origin for the disease are typically found within the lungs and the peritoneum. While the 9p21 may be the specific gene affected by asbestos and often leads to mesothelioma, once the cancer has routed, it spreads to and morphs the genetic makeup of the tissue found there, allowing for further growth and malignancy as, unchecked, the altered DNA spreads through the body via lymph nodes and cause further genetic remodeling and metastases in areas that the infected fluid can accumulate.

The main problem with Mesothelioma, as with other cancers, is that it has often advanced to a later stage when it is discovered and carcinogenesis is well established. The cells continue to replicate the altered genetic material until the original cellular structure is poorly differentiated, meaning that the original cellular makeup is nearly lost to the altered DNA. However, greater knowledge of exposure risks can lead to a greater chance of early detection, as the morphing genetic information can be found within the blood when studied for specific tumor markers.

Wiki Leaks, DNA Seals

Wiki Leaks, DNA Seals

Wikileaks and released reports are best examples of thermodynamic laws stating that everything in the universe has a tendency towards disorder. Examples are various. When a water pipe breaks, water leaks. When glass is broken glass pieces are dispersed. When you do not clean your appartment the pleace will be a mess. Secret reports have a tendency to disseminate too.

Only, DNA gets against this rule. DNA creats itself from scratch and then organizes an individual. The individuls organize a living ecosystem etc, etc..

When DNA is decoded and its magice is understood life will not be a secret anymore.

Eventually, dna information will leak to the public away from the academic platform. That is inevitable.

We will know whether a diplomat is trustable or not at the DNA level.

Genome Sequence Of A Paleo Eskimo

Genome Sequence Of A Paleo Eskimo

Functional SNP assessment.

Although the relationship between risk allele and causation is still in its infancy23, some phenotypic traits can possibly be inferred from the genome data (all functional SNPs discussed below are listed in Supplementary Table 14). We only included genotypes with a posterior probability above 99%.

Given the A1 antigen allele plus encoding of the rhesus factor in combination with lack of B antigen and the O antigen frameshift mutation, we conclude that the Saqqaq individual had blood type A+24. Although common in all ethnic groups, this has very high frequencies in populations of the east coast of Siberia down to mid China25. Furthermore, we find a combination of four SNPs at the HERC2-OCA2 locus, which among Asians is strongly associated with brown eyes26. SNPs on chromosomes 2, 5, 15 and X suggest that he probably did not have a European light skin colour27, had dark and thick hair28, 29 (in agreement with the morphological examination (Fig. 1b–d)), and an increased risk of baldness30, 31. The same SNP that is characteristic of hair thickness also suggests that he probably had shovel-graded front teeth—a characteristic trait of Asian and Native American populations32. An AA genotype SNP (forward strand) on chromosome 16 is consistent with the Saqqaq individual having earwax of the dry type that is typical of Asians and Native Americans, rather than the wet earwax type dominant in other ethnic groups33. In addition, the combined influence of 12 SNPs on metabolism and body mass index indicates that the Saqqaq individual was adapted to a cold climate (see Supplementary Information and Supplementary Table 14).

 

Blood type, eye color, hair thickness, boldness, theth morphology, skin color, ear wax type, Body mass index (BMI) and many more are all determined from an ancient hair remaining.

Eight other human genome sequences have been reported so far; a Yoruba African, four Europeans, a Han Chinese and two Koreans.

The above study was the 9th genome. The interpretation of the results was based on the 8 other references studied before. Lets say there is a 8X depth in the data interpretation since the data was interpreted on 8 other references.

Can you imagine what level of detail, accuracy, in other words “X depth” will be available when there are 1 million individual genomes in the database as a reference ?

George Orwell is not ancient but I believe his imagination is ancient now. Big brother will be much more powerful than he imagined some 100 years ago.

Outsourcing DNA Sequencing Work

Outsourcing DNA Sequencing Work

Pharma, biotech and agriculture markets as well as academic institutions are craving for DNA sequence information as their future is depending on genome data in silico. Scientists understand the business side of the sector, and realize that outsourcing can be a pretty cost efficient way to get the data they need, rather than investing in the resources to perform the sequencing in their labs. In addition, outsourcing gives these institutions the ability to focus their efforts on their core competencies, usually drug discovery and development, instead of acquiring the tools for sequencing.

In the global world specialized work is the business of big industrial giants. When you talk about steel industry Baosteel and Krupps comes first to mind. Search engine work is the job of giants like Google and Yahoo. “Oil bidness” belongs to international giants such as BP and Shell. Honda, Toyota, and Tata are exemplar automobile giants.

The genome sequencing work is the biggest bio-tech business for the next decade. The question is who is going to do the job ?

Are there going to be international giants that will be pumping genome data to the industry and academia ?

Is that industry going to be mainly outsourced to a particular country the way call center service is outsourced to India ?

Should a giant equivalent in size and technology to Google be responsible to process all the genomic information of the world ?

World DNA information in the hands of an international giant.

Well, this is definetly beyond imagination of George Orwell.

Open Source DNA Database: Genome Reviews

Open Source DNA Database: Genome Reviews

The Genome Reviews database provides an up-to-date, standardized and comprehensively annotated view of the genomic sequence of organisms with completely deciphered genomes. Currently, Genome Reviews contains the genomes of archaea, bacteria, bacteriophages and selected eukaryota. Genome Reviews is available as a MySQL relational database, or a flat file format derived from that in the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database.

MySQL is a convenient platform for open source data transactions. That means genetic data of nearly all available species can be uploaded and retrieved.

The genetic code of all species including human beings is a universal entity and should be accessed by researchers, medical doctors and non researchers.

Individual genomes, genomes of individuals in other words Identity DNA is a different issue which should not be on an open-source platform.

Diabetes, Heart Attacks, Avandia And Toyota

Diabetes, Heart Attacks, Avandia And Toyota

Avandia is an oral medication used to treat Type II diabetes. It is manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and was approved by the FDA. So far the diabetes drug has been used by over 6 million people worldwide, and could be responsible for thousands of heart attacks and deaths every year.

Avantia problems were identified when independent researchers from the Cleveland Clinic reviewed data from clinical trials involving nearly 28,000 patients. The researchers concluded that Avandia side effects could increase the risk of a heart attack by 43% and the risk of cardiovascular death by as much as 64%. Following the release of this report.

The manufacturer of Avandia, GSK had access to the same clinical data for over one year before the independent research study was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in May 2007. They failed to disclose the heart attack risks, and have actively tried to minimize the danger, even though their own analysis showed a 30% increase in the rate of injuries. Experts indicate that since 1999, Avandia heart attacks could be responsible for injuries to as many as 200,000 people.

Why does it take that long ( almost a decade) for Avandia to be taken off from the market ? Toyota has withdrawn its cars immediately from the market.